GLOSSARY

byPaul Wilson

Annealing:
After glass is heated to a high temperature and worked, it must be cooled slowly to prevent it from cracking, fracturing or shattering, this process is called annealing.
Antique Glass:
Refers to glass made the old way. Glass is blown into long cylinders, the ends are cut off and one long cut is made down the center of the cylinder so that it can be laid out as a sheet of glass on a table. Each sheet of glass made this way is unique. It varies in thickness, pattern, color and other attributes.
Bevels:
Glass shapes that have had the edges ground at an angle.
Breaker-Groziers:
Combination pliers for breaking glass and filling away large shards of glass. The top jaw is flat, the bottom curved and they have sharp teeth for gripping and filling.
Burnish:
Use of a tool to firmly rub copper foil onto glass. The point being that copper foil that is not burnished will fall apart upon soldering or any stress being placed on the project.
Came:
Metal that comes in strip and roll form. U-shaped came is used on the outside edges of stained glass projects, H-shaped is for joining more than one piece of glass together. It comes in lead, zinc, brass and copper.
Cartoon:
Working pattern for stained glass project.
Cathedral Glass:
Transparent one color glass.
Cement:
A putty or other compound that is used to weatherproof stained glass projects that are to be used for doors or windows. The cement is forced between the came and the glass. It also adds strength and keeps the glass from rattling.
Copper Foil:
A stained glass technique that uses copper tape around the edges to solder two pieces of glass together. This technique if not invented by architect Louis Comfort Tiffany, was at least popularized by him.
Cutter:
Glass cutter, normally a small steel or carbide wheel mounted in a pencil or gun shaped handle. Must be lubricated often.
Etching:
The technique of using an acid based creme or liquid to impart a frosted appearance to glass, usually over a stick-on pattern. Stronger acid mixes may be used to eat away a different layer of color from glass, similar to the cameo concept. Less commonly, the use of diamond tipped pens to scratch into glass.
Fid:
Plastic or wooden tool to burnish copper foil down onto the glass. Sometimes called a lathekin.
Firing:
Use of a kiln to raise the temperature of glass high enough where it can be worked for slumping, fusing, glass blowing.
Flashed Glass:
Glass that has two layers of glass, one thin and one thick of different colors.
Flat Panel Lamp:
Lamp shade made by joining several flat panels together into a lamp-shade shape. Popularized by architect Frank Loyd Wright.
Flux:
Acid based liquid or paste used to etch metals to be soldered. Allows solder, a different metal, to adhere and join pieces together. There are different types of solder for electronics and plumbing, do not substitute these types.
Foil Shears:
Scissors with three blades that cut 5/64th of an inch from the inside of a pattern. This represents the material that needs to be removed to allow space for the copper foil. Use short strokes and move the material being cut each stroke to prevent it jamming up.
Fusing:
Use of heat to melt more than two pieces of glass together.
Glass Cutter:
See Cutter.
Glazing:
Assembling glass and lead came to make a window.
Globs:
Small globs of colored glass used to accent stained glass projects.
Grinder:
Or glass grinder. Tool that turns a diamond impregnated bit at high speed to grind glass to exact shape. Must be used with water to prevent glass dust and wearing of bit.
Grozing:
Shaping glass using grozing pliers or breaker-groziers. Serrated teeth of pliers file, chew away at glass.
Jewels:
Glass globs that were dropped into a small jewel shaped mold so that it resembles a jewel.
Kiln:
A high temperature oven used to raise the temperature of glass until it bends or fuses.
Lathekin:
See fid.
Lead Came:
Came that is made out of lead. Also a slang term for came made of other materials like zinc or brass.
Lead sheers:
Similar to Foil Shears, only used for cutting lead came patterns..
Nuggets:
See globs.
Opalescent Glass:
Generally glass you cannot see through.
Panel lamp:
See flat panel lamp.
Patina:
Use of an acid to change the color of soldered lead lines.
Pattern Shears:
see Foil and Lead Shears.
Reinforcing:
Various methods of using wire, bars or other material to strengthen projects.
Router:
See grinder.
Running Pliers:
Special pliers that help break glass by "running" the scored line by placing pressure where its needed.
Sandblasting:
Use of pressured air to propel sand or aluminum oxide grit in a controlled way so that glass may be sculpted away. Requires some type of breathing protection whether a NIOSH rated mask, a closed rebreathing system or a controlled atmosphere like a sandblasting box. Small inexpensive systems using "canned" air can be used for small projects.
Score:
The scratch left on glass by a "cutter." See running pliers and cutter.
Slumping:
Use of heat to bend glass into decorative shapes.
Solder:
Soft metal compound used to join pieces of glass together.
Soldering iron:
Pencil or gun shaped tool used to melt solder so that glass pieces can be joined.
Tiffany lamp:
Lamp made using the copper foil technique and antique glass.
Tinning:
Applying a thin coating of solder to something.
Whiting:
Calcium carbonate, used to remove flux and polish up lead lines when scrubbed.
Zinc Came:
Came made out of zinc. Much stronger than lead came.

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last updated 31 Mar 97